2 Polish Decorative Textiles of the Political Thaw Period – New Perspectives, New Techniques
This article discusses the phenomenon of Polish applied arts referred to as “young” art of the post-thaw landscape – painted and printed textiles present indoors, in architecture, outdoors. The large-format sheets of cotton and silk textiles, artistically painted or silk-screen printed wall hangings, would be used as backdrops at art festivals, concerts, as artwork and stage design of exhibitions and international fairs. It was possible not only due to the new, generally available “carriers” and decorative techniques, but also resulted from the contemporary young art’s diversion from the theme rigours and delight over the abstract patterns, and colour. The invasion of abstraction, aggressive lines and colours, spread across different environments – initially in the “Sopot school”, and then in the artistic circles of the Academies of Fine Arts in Warsaw, Łódź, Kraków and Poznań. One should appreciate the role of the exhibitions, organised after 1955, as well as the reviews and press articles, presenting the perspective of a “reporter” – participant of celebrations of the 1955 Festival, for instance, the “carnival” event of major social significance, breaking through the fanfare of Stalinist rallies and parades – or the perspective of a café-goer, home owners using textiles to decorate their flat, which is the added value of this article. Little is known about the role of artists who collaborated with architects for interior design in the capital, hence the selection of the most active ones for the purposes of this presentation: the Rechowiczs, Krystyna Policzowska and Apolinary Gałecki. Another crucial subject are the representative jacquards of the Ład collective manufactured in the 1950s and 60s as furnishings for buildings, reconstructed after the war, and confronting this technique with printed and painted textiles created within the Collaborative and art studios, smaller manufacturers including The Silk-Screen Studio of the Institute of Industrial Design.
Keywords: post-thaw decorative textiles, outdoor textiles, Ład jacquards, painted textiles – “Picassos”, Institute of Industrial Design’s silk-screens